当前位置:职场资讯 > 工程师资讯 > 听听世界各地的建筑师们讲述不同的现状和挑战

听听世界各地的建筑师们讲述不同的现状和挑战

images (40).jpg

建筑是一种异质性的实践:是什么造就了世界各地的建筑师

Architecture as a Heterogenous Practice: What is to be an Architect Around the World


虽然建筑本身具有普遍性,但在世界各地的日常实践中仍有差异,从建筑师的专业要求和责任,当地环境、历史和建筑习俗,到当地的优先事项和面临的挑战,均受到各种因素的影响。在一个全球化的世界中,建筑似乎变得更加统一,那么当地的背景和特点如何塑造建筑环境呢?这篇文章挖掘了建筑行业内的共同点和差异性。


建筑师们拥有相似的教育背景,并了解自身所处的文化、历史和地理环境,他们在世界各地工作,在高度多样化的背景下创作出了堪称典范的建筑,全球化和信息的快速传播使建筑越来越国际化。然而,背景和建筑环境的多样性使得建筑实践具有差异性,全球的挑战在各地以特殊的方式被解决,建筑师们面临着不同的优先事项。在ArchDaily,我们的编辑和撰稿人分布在世界各地,以下对一系列问题的回答代表了他们对所居住国家的建筑行业的洞察。


Although architecture itself is universal, the day-to-day practice still varies across the world, influenced by a wide range of factors, from the professional requirements and responsibilities of an architect, the local environment, history and building customs, to local priorities and challenges. In a hyper-connected world, where architecture seems to become more uniform, how do local contexts and characteristics shape the built environment? This article taps into the commonalities and the variations within the architecture profession.

Sharing a similar educational background and the tools to understand the cultural, historical and geographical context they operate in, architects work in all parts of the world, producing exemplary architecture in highly diverse contexts. Globalization and the fast dissemination of information have made architecture increasingly international. However, the diversity of contexts and built environments make for a heterogeneous architecture practice, where global challenges are addressed in particular manners at the local level, and architects face different sets of priorities. Here at ArchDaily, our editors and contributors are located worldwide, and the following answers to a series of questions represent their insight into the architectural profession in the countries they reside in.


全世界的建筑师都接受类似的教育,以相同的参考和价值观为标志,在理论或技术重点之间有一定程度的差异。虽然各国的专业要求不同,但整个建筑教育的一个共同点是学术和实际操作之间的差异,Archdaily的读者、编辑团队和知名建筑师都对此表示遗憾。在欧洲,与艺术界类似,建筑教学侧重于其西方的历史和发展,低估了这个范围之外的重要因素,一体化的建筑市场和各国之间劳动力和学生流动性的增加,以及欧盟采取的标准化措施,正在塑造建筑教育和实践中的共同经验,欧洲建筑师委员会定期对整个欧洲的职业进行全面分析。


在你们国家,建筑教育的重点是什么,建筑师的责任是什么?


Antonia(智利):在智利,建筑曾经是一个非常精英化的职业,在一些机构中,教育的重点仍然是设计非凡的建筑,而不顾资源的使用。


Fernanda(智利):我认为我们正面临着这样一个时刻:更多的人意识到建筑不仅仅是建筑和施工,还有很多生产和提供建筑的方式。15年前,建筑师主要是概念性的思考者,而今天的建筑学教育同时注重于建筑师如何在政治、通讯媒体、教育和创业方面为社会做出贡献。


Christele(黎巴嫩):在我看来,黎巴嫩的建筑教育相当多样化,尽管它没有涵盖该领域所有的当代问题。建筑起初受到法国美术学院的启发,这些年来,这个行业面临着许多障碍,特别是随着工程类"建筑师"的崛起。


Hana(黎巴嫩):[关于建筑师作为起草人]不幸的是,在许多情况下,建筑师没有完成足够的现场考察和检查,从而让项目经理或承包商来进行材料规格的制定。


Kaley(美国):[选择一个特定的职业道路]在学术界和建筑实践之间产生了巨大的差距,毕业后,学生们往往会对日常工作的内容感到惊讶。


Eduardo(巴西):建筑师的受众面很小,主要从事住宅或企业项目的工作,而且由于收费很低,建筑师通常把项目发展成一个执行项目,缺乏细节。建筑师或工程师通常负责施工现场。


Fabian(阿根廷):一般来说,有一种趋势是更多地关注形式的设计,具有批判性的眼光,对技术的限制不大,在学术界和专业界之间通常存在着巨大的差距。


Architects worldwide share a similar education, marked by the same references and values, with a degree of variation between a theoretical or a technical focus. While professional requirements differ from country to country, a commonality across architecture education is the discrepancy between academia and the actual practice, lamented by Archdaily's readership, editorial team and renowned architects. In Europe, similar to the art world, architecture teaching focuses on its Western history and development, underplaying the significant figures outside of this range. An integrated construction market and increased workforce and student mobility between countries, as well as steps taken by the EU towards standardisation, are shaping a shared experience within architecture education and the practice, with The Architects' Council of Europe periodically delivering a comprehensive analysis of the profession across Europe.


What is the primary focus of architecture education in your country, and what are architects' responsibilities?

Antonia (Chile): Architecture in Chile used to be a very elitist profession, and in some institutions, the focus of education is still designing extraordinary architecture disregarding the resources.

Fernanda (Chile): I think we are facing a moment in which more people are aware that architecture goes beyond just building and construction and that there are many ways of producing and delivering architecture. Fifteen years ago, the architect was taught mainly as a conceptual thinker. Still, today's education in architecture is also focused on how an architect can contribute to society in politics, communication media, education, and entrepreneurship.

Christele (Lebanon): Architecture Education in Lebanon is quite diverse, in my opinion, even though it doesn't cover all contemporary and present-day aspects of the field. Inspired at first by the teachings of the French Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the profession faced many hurdles throughout the years, especially with the rise of Engineers that "architect".

Hana (Lebanon): [on the architect as draftperson] Unfortunately, in many cases, not enough site visits and inspections are accomplished, leaving it to the Project Manager or Contractor to proceed with material specifications.

Kaley (United States): [choosing a specific career path] creates a huge gap between academia and the practice of architecture. Upon graduation, students are often surprised by what the day-to-day job entails.

Eduardo (Brazil): The architect is restricted to a tiny audience, working mainly on residential or corporate projects. And as the fees are low, the architect usually develops the project into an executive project (very little detailed). Builders or engineers usually run the construction site.

Fabian (Argentina): In general, there is a tendency to focus more on the design of the form, with a critical look and not so restrictive with the technical resolutions. There is usually a huge gap between academia and the professional world.


建筑师面临着诸如快速城市化、气候变化和不平等的全球性挑战。然而,每个地区都以一种源于特定历史或经济发展的特定方式来解决这些问题和其他地方性问题。在整个欧洲,不同的文化背景和经济发展水平在各国如何处理和优先考虑气候变化方面造成了巨大的差距,因此,新欧洲包豪斯倡议旨在创建一个统一的方法,为所有欧盟国家提供实施碳中性的手段。在东欧,社会主义时代的大型建筑和城市空间仍然构成了具有挑战性的建筑遗产,与当代城市环境和塑造当今城市的价值观相抵触。


在你的国家,哪些与建筑环境有关的紧迫问题经常被讨论?建筑师如何解决这些问题?


Antonia(智利):在智利,这与城市规划和市场法规有关,涉及不同的挑战,如限制城市扩张。今天,在当前政治环境的激励下,建筑师们越来越多地参与到公共讨论中。


Fernanda(智利):我们讨论社会住房的质量和尊严,市中心建筑的密度以及公共空间和公园的缺乏。2019年,一群年轻的建筑师在社会表现的中心进行了一次有趣的设计,使社会住房问题变得明显,他们以1:1的比例绘制了不同的"纳米公寓"的平面图,这些公寓由于价格高且缺乏生活尊严而引起了很大的争议。


Christele(黎巴嫩):背景的概念非常重要,特别是在黎巴嫩的情况下,建筑法已经产生了典型和相同的结构,并没有考虑到整合、场地或结构。对整个国家来说,它们并不灵活,也没有标准,它们不区分农村和城市,或者历史和现代等等。再加上完全没有总体规划和策略,加之神圣的开发权,对破坏建筑遗产和消除传统城市和社会结构负有主要责任。


Kaley(美国):目前,我们面临着两个巨大的压力,一个是我们如何能设计出更公平的城市,并创造出为服务较少的社区提供机会的设计,另一个是我们如何能以一种减少碳足迹的方式进行设计,减轻我们对气候变化的影响。


Dima(瑞士):肯定是可再生能源,这是一个全国性的课题,在各种项目中都在处理,大多数公司都有一个到2050年达到100%绿色可持续的计划。


Eduardo(巴西):关于对低收入家庭的技术援助已经说了很多,也就是说,政府可以付钱给建筑师,让他为有需要的家庭设计改造或新建建筑。换句话说,是增加建筑师行动的领域。


Fabian(阿根廷):住房和非正规住区的城市化问题一直是讨论的焦点,主要从学术界着手,并经常被用作政治中的承诺。无论如何,最近的争论正在转向经济和环境危机的全球挑战。


Architects are faced with global challenges such as rapid urbanization, climate change and inequality. However, each region addresses these issues and other local ones in a specific way that stems from a particular history or economic development. Across Europe, the different cultural backgrounds and levels of economic development have created a huge gap in how countries address and prioritise climate change; therefore, The New European Bauhaus initiative aims to create a unified approach and provide all EU countries with the means to implement carbon neutrality. In Eastern Europe, the Socialist era's large-scale architecture and urban spaces still constitute a challenging legacy, at odds with contemporary urban environments and the values shaping cities today.


What pressing issue related to the built environment is often discussed in your country? How are architects addressing it?

Antonia (Chile): In Chile, it’s related to urban planning and market regulations, involving different challenges such as limiting urban sprawl. Today, architects are getting more involved in public discussion motivated by the current political climate.

Fernanda (Chile): We discuss the quality (and dignity) of social housing, the density of the city centre buildings, and the lack of public space and parks. In 2019, a group of young architects made the social housing issue visible with an interesting intervention in the center of the social manifestations, drawing in 1:1 scale the floor plans of different “nano apartments” that have been very polemic due to their high prices and lack of dignity.

Christele (Lebanon): The idea of context is very important, especially in the case of Lebanon. Construction laws have generated typical and identical structures that don’t consider integration, site or fabric. Not flexible and standard for the country's entirety, they don’t differentiate between the rural and the urban, or the historical and the contemporary etc. Coupled with a complete absence of master plans and visions and with sacred development rights, they are primarily responsible for destroying architectural gems and eradicating traditional urban and social fabrics.

Kaley (United States): There are two big pressures that we face currently. One has to do with how we can design more equitable cities, and create designs that provide opportunities for lesser served communities, and the other is how we can design in a way that reduces our carbon footprint and mitigate our impact on climate change.

Dima (Switzerland): Definitely renewable energy. It is a nationwide subject that is being tackled in all sorts of projects. Most companies have a plan of becoming 100% green by 2050.

Eduardo (Brazil): Much has been said about technical assistance for low-income families. That is, the government can pay the architect to design a renovation or new building for a family in need. In other words, the main thing is to increase the field of action.

Fabian (Argentina): Access to housing and the urbanization of informal settlements are always in the focus of the discussion, being approached mainly from the academy and often used as a promise in political campaigns. In any case, the debate lately is turning towards other aspects of the global challenges of the economic and environmental crisis.


无论当代建筑语言多么普遍,当地的环境、文化和历史在塑造建筑环境方面仍然起着关键作用。东欧国家的社会主义历史留下了对公共建筑和城市空间的投资不足,这使得建筑师的工作仅限于住房项目和商业开发。然而,一系列的竞赛和国际知名的项目正在为当地建筑师开辟一系列新的可能性。


在塑造你们国家建筑的过程中,发挥重要作用的地方特征有哪些?


Antonia(智利):智利景观的多样性可能是其建筑闻名世界的最重要因素。


Christele(黎巴嫩):文化遗产、历史、当地知识和社会生活方式在塑造黎巴嫩的建筑环境方面发挥着重要作用。这些特征(以及其他许多特征)应该被纳入每一个概念性的建筑设计过程中,以产生综合的建筑,它看起来更亲近人民,讲述他们的故事,并对周围环境作出反应,并成为叙事的一部分。


Hana(黎巴嫩):在黎巴嫩,有许多空间和法规方面的限制往往会影响到建筑。不幸的是,需要尽可能多地利用你能发挥的空间,这正在成为这个城市的一个趋势。不过,在集中对文物建筑和石屋的修复和恢复方面还是有一些非常有趣的尝试。


Kaley(美国):这很有趣,因为没有"美国"风格,在历史上我们是一个从别人那里借鉴的国家,并完全按照原样建造,或者以新的方式改造。现在,我们对建设更好、更高、更快感兴趣,这就造成了超高层摩天大楼的泛滥,因为很多项目都是开发商私人出资。


Dima(瑞士):简洁的线条是常用的风格,每个地区都制定了自己的建筑规则和要求,所以建筑师不能创造过分异类的项目,也不能试验几何图形。如果让我简单描述一下瑞士建筑,我认为功能和人类需求是第一位的。


Eduardo(巴西):巴西是如此之大,以至于要归纳出任何东西都是有难度的,当我们看到一些公共设计竞赛或较大规模的建筑时,所谓的Escola Paulista在这里十分盛行。


Fabian(阿根廷):规章制度在历史上对塑造阿根廷的建筑具有根本性的作用,它产生了有序的城市,如拉普拉塔,或目前的布宜诺斯艾利斯市,它是世界上人口最多的20个城市之一。


However universal is the contemporary architecture lan**ge, local environment, culture and history still play a crucial role in shaping the built environment. The Socialist past of Eastern European countries has left behind a lack of investment in public buildings and urban spaces, which restricted the work of architects to housing projects and commercial developments. However, a series of competitions and internationally acclaimed projects are opening up a new series of possibilities for local architects.


What is a local characteristic that plays an important role in shaping the architecture in your country?

Antonia (Chile): Probably the diversity of landscapes in Chile is the most important factor in its world-famous architecture.

Christele (Lebanon): Cultural heritage, history, local know-how and societal ways of living play an essential role in shaping the Lebanese built environment. These characteristics (with many others) should be incorporated in every conceptual architectural process to generate an integrated architecture that looks like its people, tells their stories, reacts to the surroundings and is part of the narrative.

Hana (Lebanon): There are many spatial and regulatory constraints that tend to shape architecture in Lebanon. Unfortunately, the need to utilize as much of the space as you can afford is becoming a recurrent trend in the city. Still, some very interesting endeavors focus on the rehabilitation and restoration of heritage buildings and stone houses.

Kaley (United States): It’s interesting because there is no “American” style; we are historically a country that borrowed from others and reused that exactly as it is or invented it in a new way. Right now, we are interested in building better, taller, and faster, and it’s created a proliferation of supertall skyscrapers (at least in NYC) because many projects are funded privately through developers.

Dima (Switzerland): clean lines are the go-to style. Each canton sets its own architecture rules and requirements, so architects can’t create over-the-top projects or experiment with geometry. If I were to describe Swiss architecture briefly, I would say functionality and human needs come first.

Eduardo (Brazil): Brazil is so big that it is challenging to generalize anything. We have a prevalence of the so-called Escola Paulista when we see a few public design competitions or larger constructions.

Fabian (Argentina): The regulation historically had a fundamental role in shaping the architecture of Argentina, which gave rise to orderly cities such as La Plata, or the case of the current city of Buenos Aires, which is among the 20 most populated cities in the world.



【观点仅代表作者,不代表本站立场】



回到顶部